Jacques Cartier was born in 1491. As he was considered a good seaman, in 1534 the king of France sent him to find a route from France to the western sea. On the first try, he found the inlet to the St. Lawrence, but didn’t enter it. Instead he returned home with a report that he might have found the passage he had sought after.
The following year, being commissioned again to find the route aforementioned, he boldly returned and entered the St. Lawrence river and thus became the first European to discover it. Since the day he discovered the river was a feast day of St. Lawrence, Cartier gave the river St. Lawrence’s name, which it has borne to this day. Upon sailing up the St. Lawrence, he heard tales of kingdoms located on the river. Interested in seeing them, and also probably hopeful of finding gold, he journeyed on. On his way up the river, however, he soon discovered his way blocked by rapids, and decided upon wintering in Quebec. His wintering didn’t go so well, as the party suffered from the dread of sailors – scurvy. To make matters worse, the party was lacking adequate clothing for a harsh winter such as is found in Canada. By the time the winter had ended and twenty-five men were lost, Cartier decided to head home. He compelled three Indian chiefs and eight Indian warriors who had been hospitable to him to return to France with him. The majority died of unknown causes shortly after arriving in France.
Cartier returned to the St. Lawrence six years later. After anchoring three of his five ships, he sent the other two back to France to ask for supplies. Meanwhile Cartier busied himself with trying to pass the rapids that had halted him before, but failed. So he spent another winter on the St. Lawrence river. This party faired the winter better, but it was exceedingly cold for those accustomed to France’s warm climate. Once the winter ended, Cartier spent the following summer hunting for gold in the area (something most early explorers dreamed of finding), with but little success. He did discover a few diamonds, and named the location where they were discovered Cape Diamond, which name it has retained. The following hard winter disheartened Cartier. The supplies he had asked for never arrived. He returned home where he died in 1557 of failing health.
Despite his rather discouraging voyages, Cartier accomplished two things: one, he established France’s claim to Canada; and two, he discovered the St. Lawrence river on June 9, 1535.
Jacques Cartier Sailed Up the St. Lawrence River
Simple history from the Library of Congress for kids.
More detailed history from Thinkquest.
Another, but varying, history from the 1911 Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Age of Exploration
Timeline from TimeToast. The Text View provides an easy-to-read layout.
Jacques Cartier’s Second Voyage to the St. Lawrence River and Interior of “Canada,” 1535-1536 (.pdf)
Excerpts from his journal.
The Second Voyage
The Third Voyage
St. Lawrence River
About the river.
Great Lakes Map
Map of the St. Lawrence River.
Early Navigation Methods
How to Read a Compass
Activities for Students and Teachers
Twelve explorer activities including creating a compass, astrolabe, quadrant and globe; identifying instruments and parts of a ship; worksheets and more from the Mariner’s Museum.
Early Explorer’s Teacher Activity Packet (.pdf)
Three activities from Independence Seaport Museum in Philadelphia.
Build Your Own Journal Pages
Make your own explorer’s notebooking pages. You can feature one explorer per page by selecting “blank” near the bottom.
Explorer’s Ship Notebooking Paper
Simple page from Homeschool Helper.